Operators

Operators allow you to focus your search by linking search terms and defining the relationship between them. e-catalog recognizes the following types of operators.

Some operators take precedence over others when searching the catalog; refer to operator precedence for more information. In addition, e-catalog will not allow you to search for operators when they are at the beginning or end of a search expression and not enclosed in double quotation marks.


Boolean Operators

Boolean operators (AND, NOT, OR, XOR) locate records containing matching terms in one of the specified fields, both of the specified fields, or all of the specified fields. Use Boolean operators to connect words or phrases between more than one text field, or use Boolean operators to connect words or phrases within a text field.

Use the AND operator to locate records containing all of the specified search terms.
Example: Dogs AND Cats
e-catalog locates records containing all of the specified terms.

Use the OR operator to locate records matching any or all of the specified terms.
Example: Dogs OR Cats
e-catalog locates records containing the first search term but not the second.

Use the NOT operator to locate records containing the first search term but not the second.
Example: Dogs NOT Cats
e-catalog locates records containing the first search term but not the second.

Use the XOR (exclusive or) operator to locate records matching any of the specified terms but not all of the specified terms.
Example: Dogs XOR Cats
e-catalog locates records matching any one of the specified terms but not all of the specified terms.


Positional Operators

Positional operators (SAME, WITH, NEAR, ADJ) locate records in which the search terms are in close proximity within the same bibliographical record. Positional operators can be used to connect words or phrases within a search field but not between search fields.

Use the SAME operator to locate records in which a bibliographic record field contains all of the specified terms. All of the search terms are located within the same record field, though not necessarily in the same sentence.
Example: Chicago SAME History
Only records containing both Chicago and History within the same bibliographic field will be retrieved.

Use the WITH operator to locate records in which a field contains a sentence with all of the specified terms.
Example: Chicago WITH History
Only records containing both Chicago and History in the same sentence in a bibliographic field will be retrieved from this search.

Use the NEAR operator to locate records in which a field contains all of the search terms next to each other; however, the order of the terms does not have to match the order they were entered.
Example: Chicago NEAR History
Only records with the terms Chicago and History next to each other within the same bibliographic field would be retrieved from this search. Chicago or History could display first in the field.

Use the ADJ operator to locate records in which a field contains all of the search terms adjacent to each other and in the order they were entered.
Example: Chicago ADJ History
Only records with the terms Chicago and History adjacent to each other within the same bibliographic field and with Chicago listed first in this field would be retrieved from this search

In addition, you may append a number to the positional operators, NEAR and ADJ, to limit or broaden the proximity between words.
Example: FROM ADJ1 HERE ADJ2 ETERNITY
This example shows how to search for the title, "From Here to Eternity."

ADJ2 means that the words may be within two searchable words of each other, but they must be in the order they were entered.


Relational Operators

Relational operators (<, >, =, <>, <=, >=) allow you to search numeral expressions. Use relational operators by enclosing a field name or entry tag number in braces {}, then typing a relational operator and number.

Operator Definition
< Less than
> Greater than
= Equal to
<> Not equal to
<= Less than or equal to
>= Greater than or equal to

Example: {DATE} <991022
If you type {DATE} < 991022, Unicorn searches for records whose Date field contains values less than 991022.

Operator Precedence
When the search expression consists of a combination of terms, the order in which these terms are searched can be defined. If two operators are at the same level in the list, e-catalog first searches the term at the left, then moves right. Refer to the following list for operator precedence, with the highest listed first.

More Searching Tips

Searching Tips Substitution and Truncation
Keyword Index Synonyms Specified Entries
Special Characters  

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